Methods other than photography were also used to capture the ideas embedded in the Western Civilization curriculum. These art project samples demonstrate other mediums students utilized in their projects. A very common artistic expression in Christian art, particularly of the Middle Ages was the calligraphy and illustrations of the illuminated prayer books. Having learned about the basics of calligraphy writing, students created their own illuminated book pages. Next, the black and white etchings taught students how to draw buildings, scenes or still life and then use an inking method to etch their drawings. The third method was portraiture drawn with pencil and charcoal. For this assignment students learned to “see” the lines/contours, shapes, and shading of the faces they duplicated.